Posts for Tag: AI

Unleashing the Future of AI with Intel's Gaudi2

The AI gold rush sparked by chatbots like ChatGPT has sent NVIDIA's stock soaring. NVIDIA GPUs train nearly all of the popular large language models (LLMs) that power these chatbots. However, Intel aims to challenge NVIDIA's dominance in this space with its new Gaudi2 chip. Intel recently released some impressive MLPerf benchmark results for Gaudi2, showing it can match or beat NVIDIA's current A100 GPUs for training large models like GPT-3. Intel even claims Gaudi2 will surpass NVIDIA's upcoming H100 GPU for specific workloads by September. 

These benchmarks position Gaudi2 as the first real alternative to NVIDIA GPUs for LLM training. While NVIDIA GPU supply is limited, demand for LLM training silicon far exceeds it. Gaudi2 could help fill that gap. Intel specifically targets NVIDIA's price/performance advantage, claiming Gaudi2 already beats A100 in this area for some workloads. And with software optimizations still ongoing, Intel believes Gaudi2's price/performance lead will only grow.

So, while NVIDIA GPUs will continue to dominate LLM training in the short term, Gaudi2 seems poised to become a viable alternative. For any company looking to train the next ChatGPT rival, Gaudi2 will likely be alluring.

In that sense, Gaudi2 does appear to be Intel's direct response to NVIDIA's AI computing leadership. By delivering comparable LLM training performance at a better price, Intel can capture a slice of the exploding market NVIDIA currently owns. 

Gaudi2 has been hailed as a game-changer for its unmatched performance, productivity, and efficiency in complex machine-learning tasks. Its robust architecture allows it to handle intensive computational workloads associated with generative and large language models. Here is a video that introduces the Gaudi2 Intel processor.

This video offers an extensive introduction to this revolutionary technology. It guides viewers through enabling Gaudi2 to augment their LLM-based applications comprehensively. It’s a must-watch for anyone looking for ways to leverage this powerhouse processor.

One key focus area discussed is model migration from other platforms onto Gaudi2. The conversation dissects how seamless integration can be achieved without compromising on speed or accuracy – two critical elements when working with AI.

Another crucial topic covered is accelerating LLM training using DeepSpeed and Hugging Face-based models. These popular tools are known for reducing memory usage while increasing training speed, hence their application alongside Gaudi2 comes as no surprise.

Last but not least, the video delves into high-performance inference for generative AI and LLM results. Here we get insights into how Gaudi2 can effectively analyze new data based on previously learned patterns leading to improved prediction outcomes.

This YouTube video opens up imaginations to the possibilities that lie ahead. It's a deep dive into the future of AI, and for anyone keen on keeping up with advancements in this field, it's an absolute must-watch.

Could AI Save the Planet? How Artificial Intelligence Has a Surprisingly Low Carbon Footprint

Climate change is an existential threat facing humanity. As we search for solutions, technology often arises as a source of hope – but could technology also be part of the problem? Specifically, what about emissions from advanced systems like artificial intelligence (AI)? With the rise of ChatGPT and other AI tools, this question has taken on new urgency.

In a new study, researchers made a surprising finding: the carbon emissions of AI completing specific tasks are drastically lower than humans performing the same work. While AI produces greenhouse gases task-by-task, its environmental impact is often far below ours.  The researchers focused their analysis on two areas where AI increases capability: writing text and creating images. They calculated and compared the emissions of leading AI services versus human creators in the US and India for both activities.

The results were striking. For writing a page of text, the AI services ChatGPT and BLOOM produced 130 to 1500 times less CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent, a standard measure of greenhouse gas emissions) than a human author. The analysis factored in emissions from ongoing AI model training and requests and estimated emissions for US and Indian residents writing for the same duration. The difference was enormous – AI writing had a tiny fraction of the carbon footprint.

Creating images showed a similar trend. Popular AI image generators DALL-E 2 and Midjourney emitted 310 to 2900 times less CO2e than a human illustrator making the same art. The gap held up whether compared to US or India-based artists. Again, AI proved far "greener" than humans at the same tasks. 

While narrow, these findings suggest AI could be vital in lowering humanity's carbon footprint if deployed wisely. As the study authors note, AI is not a panacea – many human activities remain beyond its capabilities. There are also severe concerns about AI displacing jobs and other social harms that green benefits do not outweigh. Nevertheless, if harnessed carefully, AI may offer a potent new tool in the climate fight.

The Environmental Impact of Creativity

We don't typically imagine an environmental impact when writing a story or creating an illustration. However, every action we take – the electricity to power our laptops or the resources to produce paper and ink – contributes to our carbon footprint. When these actions are multiplied by millions of artists and writers worldwide, the impact becomes significant. 

The paper reveals a startling comparison between traditional human-driven creative processes and AI-powered ones. While humans require resources like food, water, and shelter to function and create, AI operates with a more streamlined energy consumption once set up and trained. This energy usage is primarily tied to running servers and computational processes.

By comparing the carbon emissions of AI-driven creativity to those of humans, the study found that AI has a lower carbon footprint. The difference is attributed to the efficiency of computational processes and the elimination of indirect carbon costs associated with human sustenance.  While the energy consumption of running powerful AI models is undeniable, these models, once trained, can generate countless pieces of writing and artwork with minimal incremental energy. In contrast, each human creation requires fresh resources and energy.

AI's Green Edge in Writing and Illustration

AI's prowess in mimicking human creativity is no longer a secret. From generating art pieces to writing poems, novels, and even academic papers, AI has showcased its potential. But beyond its capabilities, the paper highlights a lesser-known advantage of AI: its environmental efficiency. The AI services ChatGPT and BLOOM produced just 1.3 to 1.6 grams of CO2e for writing a page of text, including model training and usage. In contrast, the researchers estimate it takes a human 0.8 hours to write one page (250 words). In that time, a US resident produces ~1400 grams of CO2 versus AI's ~2 grams.

Generating images shows an even wider emissions gap. Creating one picture takes AI systems just 1.9 - 2.2 grams of CO2e. A professional human illustrator averages 3.2 hours per image at ~$200. Their emissions range from 550 - 690 grams in India to 5500 grams in the US.  AI is greener than individual human creators and has a lower carbon footprint than just running a laptop or desktop computer for the duration a human would need.

Potential Criticisms and Limitations

Of course, no study is without its limitations. Critics might argue that the richness, depth, and emotional resonance of human-made art and literature cannot be replicated by AI. Moreover, the energy costs of training large AI models can be substantial. However, the paper emphasizes the difference in incremental costs – once an AI model is trained, the energy required for each additional creation is minimal. 

The advancements in green energy solutions and more efficient computing will likely further reduce AI's carbon footprint. While the paper's findings are promising, it's essential to tread with caution. The goal isn't to replace human artists and writers with machines but to leverage AI's efficiency when rapid production or large volumes of content are needed. However, using AI in creative fields raises valid concerns about job displacement for human professionals. Responsible implementation will require mitigating strategies like re-training programs to help creatives transition to roles AI cannot replace.

A Sustainable Future with AI

Imagine a future where publishers could use AI to quickly draft initial versions of books, which human authors then refine. Or think of illustrators using AI tools to generate base sketches, allowing them to focus on adding unique touches. Such collaborative approaches could ensure that we retain the human touch in our creations while benefiting from AI's efficiency and lower carbon footprint. 

While AI is often portrayed as an environmental threat to humanity, in this respect, at least, it may offer us valuable assistance. However, realizing its benefits while navigating risks will require wisdom and nuance from researchers, companies, policymakers, and the public. AI could be a surprising boon in creating a more sustainable future for all if we succeed.

10 Interesting Things in This Paper

  1. Carbon Footprint of Creativity: Even activities like writing and illustrating, which we don't typically associate with environmental impact, have a carbon footprint.
  2. AI vs. Humans: The study found that AI's carbon emissions for writing and illustrating are lower than those of humans.
  3. Indirect Carbon Costs: The carbon costs associated with human sustenance (like food, water, and shelter) affect our overall carbon footprint. 
  4. Efficiency of AI: Once trained, AI models can produce numerous pieces of content with minimal incremental energy.
  5. Collaborative Future: The paper suggests a future where AI and humans collaborate, leveraging the strengths of both.
  6. Not a Replacement: The study doesn't advocate for replacing human creators but highlights AI's potential in specific scenarios. 
  7. Emotional Depth: One limitation of AI is its current inability to replicate the deep emotional resonance often found in human-made art.
  8. Training Costs: While AI has a lower footprint for production, the energy costs of training models can be substantial. 
  9. Green Tech Advancements: We can expect the carbon footprint of AI to reduce further as technology evolves. 
  10. A Greener Perspective: The paper encourages industries and individuals to consider carbon footprints in areas we might not typically consider.

Broader Implications Beyond Writing and Illustrating

While this paper focused narrowly on writing and illustration, its findings prompt broader questions about AI's role in reducing emissions across industries. In areas like transportation, agriculture, and manufacturing, might AI-powered systems achieve the same tasks with markedly lower environmental costs? As with creative fields, a hybrid model blending AI and human strengths may unlock sustainability gains in these sectors.

Of course, radically disrupting established industries comes with risks that must be addressed thoughtfully. But given the urgency of climate change, AI's potential deserves our open-minded attention. A greener world may be closer than we think if we're willing to reimagine how humans and technology can work together.

The path ahead will be challenging. But studies like this reveal rays of hope amidst the challenges. They suggest a future where AI assists, rather than threatens, humanity's goal of building a sustainable society. With care, wisdom, and courage, that future may be within reach. We have no time to lose in pursuing it.

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Crowdsourcing AI: How Mass Collaboration is Revolutionizing Knowledge Engineering

For artificial intelligence systems, knowledge is power. The ability of AI to exhibit intelligent behavior across different real-world domains depends fundamentally on having access to large volumes of high-quality knowledge. Self-driving cars rely on extensive knowledge about roads, signs, pedestrians, and more to navigate safely. Medical AI systems need expansive knowledge of symptoms, diseases, treatments, and patient data to advise doctors or even diagnose conditions. Even fundamental technologies like speech recognition and language translation depend on comprehensive grammar, vocabulary, and language use knowledge.

But where does all this knowledge come from? Enter knowledge bases - structured repositories of facts about the world that fuel everything from commonsense reasoning to expert systems. Constructing knowledge bases has long been a significant bottleneck in applied AI, and traditional approaches have fallen short. In their paper "Building Large Knowledge Bases by Mass Collaboration," Matthew Richardson and Pedro Domingos propose a radical new paradigm - crowdsourcing knowledge acquisition through mass collaboration.

Combining Human and Machine Intelligence

The system relies on an intimate combination of human knowledge authoring and machine learning. Humans provide simplified qualitative rules while the system estimates probabilities, resolves inconsistencies, and gauges quality. This plays to the strengths of each.

Continuous Feedback Loops

A vital aspect of the system is continuous feedback loops between users and the knowledge base. Whenever a user submits a query, they provide feedback on whether the response was correct after the fact.

This real-world feedback acts as a "reality check" that constantly tunes the knowledge base to improve relevance and quality. For example, if a diagnostic rule leads to an incorrect fault prediction, this negative outcome updates the system to trust that rule less.

User feedback is also aggregated over many queries to learn the weights of different rules using machine learning techniques like expectation maximization. This allows the automatic discerning of high-quality knowledge automatically.

By perpetually incorporating new feedback, the system can rapidly adapt its knowledge in response to actual usage. This prevents the drifting into irrelevant tangents that often occurs in knowledge bases developed in isolation. The hands-on guidance of users steers the system in invaluable directions.

Addressing Key Challenges

The proposed architecture tackles several challenges that could hinder the success of collaborative knowledge bases:

  • Ensuring content quality is addressed through statistical machine learning on user feedback.
  • Handling conflicting rules is enabled by representing knowledge as probabilistic logic.
  • Keeping knowledge relevant is achieved by allowing contributors to enter practical domain-specific knowledge.
  • Incentivizing participation happens through a credit assignment system that rewards helpful contributions. 
  • Scaling to large volumes of knowledge is accomplished via a local compilation of rules relevant to each query.
By recognizing and solving these potential pitfalls, the system design provides a robust mass collaborative knowledge engineering framework.

Modular Contributions

A decentralized approach to contribution allows each person to add knowledge independently without centralized control or coordination. This supports natural scalability since contributors can plug in new rules modularly.

The modularity of rule contributions also enables combining knowledge across different topics and domains. Separate fragmentary rules authored by thousands of people can be chained together to infer new knowledge spanning multiple areas of expertise.

This freeform participation style allows any willing contributor to expand their knowledge base in whatever direction. By aggregating many modular contributions, the system can automatically construct rich knowledge graphs that connect concepts in ways no individual envisages.

Many-to-Many Interactions

A vital feature of the architecture is that interactions between contributors and users of the knowledge base are many-to-many rather than one-to-one. This enables emergent knowledge that no single contributor possessed originally. For example, a user's query may leverage rules authored by multiple contributors to infer an answer that none knew alone. 

Likewise, the feedback from the query's outcome propagates back to update the weights of all the rules contributing to the answer. Over many queries, each rule accumulates credit based on its involvement in successful inferences across the whole knowledge base. This indirect, distributed interaction between contributors via the evolving knowledge base allows for integrating knowledge in ways not anticipated by any individual contributor.

The many-to-many nature of these interactions facilitates the development of knowledge that is more than the sum of its parts. The system can infer new insights that bootstrap its learning in complex domains by connecting fragments of knowledge from an extensive, decentralized network of contributors.

User-Developers Drive Relevance

A key motivation strategy is allowing contributors to add knowledge that helps solve their real-world problems and interests. This aligns with the open-source principle that a user-developer perspective leads to practical utility. 

For example, someone struggling to troubleshoot printer issues can contribute diagnostic rules to the knowledge base that capture their hard-won experience. When they or others later query the system about similar printer problems, these rules will prove helpful in providing solutions. This creates a self-reinforcing cycle between contribution and benefit that keeps knowledge focused on valuable domains.

Empowering contributors to scratch their itches in this manner significantly enhances the real-world relevance of the evolving knowledge base. By seeding it with knowledge geared toward specific needs, the system is guided along productive directions rather than accumulating abstract facts.

Credit Assignment Fuels Participation

To incentivize quality contributions, the system provides feedback to contributors on the utility of their knowledge. When rules successfully contribute to answering user queries, credit is propagated back to the relevant rules and their authors.

This credit assignment can be used to rank contributors and reward the most helpful ones, fulfilling people's desire for recognition. Adverse credit is also assigned when rules lead to incorrect inferences, creating motivation to enter only high-quality knowledge. 

By quantifying the impact of each contribution, the system offers meaningful feedback that can sustain engagement. Seeing their knowledge used successfully provides contributors satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment, inspiring further participation.

Local Compilation for Scalability

A critical technical innovation enabling scalability is that query processing compiles only a subset of relevant knowledge into a small Bayesian network tailored to that query. The network size depends on the applicable knowledge rather than the complete knowledge base size.

This localization makes inference tractable even for extensive knowledge bases. Only rules related to the particular query are activated, rather than bombarding the query with everything known. For example, diagnosing a printer problem may only involve a few dozen candidate causes and manifestations, not the entirety of human knowledge.

Intelligent pre-processing to extract relevant knowledge also mirrors how human experts focus on pertinent facts when solving problems in specialized domains. The system learns to mimic this domain-specific perspective for robust and efficient reasoning. 

Synthetic and Real-World Evaluation

Experiments on synthetic knowledge bases and printer troubleshooting with accurate user contributions demonstrate the advantages of the architecture.

Enabling Web-Scale AI

This pioneering paper laid the groundwork for a monumental advance in artificial intelligence - constructing the massive knowledge bases needed for versatile real-world applications by harnessing the collective intelligence of millions of people.  The collaborative knowledge engineering paradigm pioneered here foreshadowed the rise of crowdsourcing platforms that have made mass participation in complex projects feasible—the participatory structure crystallized principles for effectively coordinating and combining decentralized contributions from large networks of non-experts.

Equally importantly, the hybrid human-machine approach provides a template for complementing the strengths of both. Humans handle intuitive rule authoring, while algorithms handle inference, disambiguation, and quality control. This division of labor enables symbiotic amplification of capacities. This work created solutions that make crowdsourced knowledge bases viable by recognizing and addressing challenges like relevance, motivation, and scalability. The proposed methods for ensuring quality, consistency, and scalability continue to guide collaborative knowledge systems today.

The vision of web-scale knowledge engineering is coming to fruition through projects like Cyc, Wikidata, DBpedia, and more. However, the journey is just beginning - fully realizing the paradigm's potential could make AI more capable and widely beneficial—the insights from this paper chart the way forward.

10 Interesting Facts in This Paper

  1. Combining human knowledge authoring with machine learning techniques like probabilistic inference and expectation maximization.
  2. Using continuous feedback loops from users querying the knowledge base to improve relevance and quality.
  3. Employing probabilistic logic to handle inconsistent rules from different contributors.
  4. Achieving scalability by compiling only relevant subsets of knowledge into Bayesian networks for each query.
  5. Incentivizing participation through credit assignment based on the utility of contributions.
  6. Assuming contributors are topic experts who can author rules leveraging shared general concepts.
  7. Driving practical utility by allowing user-developers to contribute knowledge for solving their problems.
  8. Supporting modular, decentralized contributions without centralized control.
  9. Facilitating emergent knowledge through many-to-many interactions between contributors and users.
  10. Validating the approach through experiments on synthetic data and printer troubleshooting knowledge from real volunteers.

This paper proposes an architecture for constructing large AI knowledge bases via mass collaboration over the web. The system combines decentralized contributions of logical rules from many volunteers with machine learning techniques. Continuous feedback loops ensure the evolving knowledge stays relevant to real-world needs.  Key ideas include:

  • Complementing human qualitative knowledge with machine probability estimation and quality learning
  • Using real-world feedback loops to validate and improve the knowledge constantly 
  • Employing probabilistic logic to resolve conflicting rules from diverse sources
  • Compiling only relevant knowledge to answer each query for scalability
  • Incentivizing participation through a credit system that rewards helpful contributions
  • Allowing user-developers to contribute valuable knowledge for their problems
  • Facilitating emergent knowledge by combining modular rules in novel ways
  • Addressing critical challenges like quality, relevance, motivation, and scalability 

Experiments demonstrate the viability of aggregating knowledge from distributed non-expert contributors to produce an intelligent system more significant than the sum of its parts. The proposed architecture provides a foundation for collectively engineering the massive knowledge bases for practical AI.


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The Future of AI is All About Attention

In the rapidly evolving field of artificial intelligence (AI), one model is making waves: the Transformer. Unlike its predecessors that relied on intricate methods like recurrence or convolutions, this model leans solely on a mechanism called 'attention' to process data. But what is so special about attention, and why is it causing a revolution in AI? Let's dig in.

What Exactly is Attention?

In AI, attention isn't about being famous or center-stage; it's about efficiency and focus. Imagine you're reading a dense academic article. You don't focus equally on every word; instead, you focus more on key phrases and concepts to grasp the overall meaning. This process of selective focus is what the 'attention' mechanism mimics in machine learning.

For instance, if a model is translating the sentence "The cat sat on the mat" into French, it needs to prioritize the words "cat," "sat," and "mat" over less informative words like "the" and "on." This selectivity allows the model to work more effectively by zooming in on what matters. 

A Transformer is like a team of assistants prepping for a big conference. Each assistant must read and understand one section of the conference material thoroughly. Rather than reading their sections individually, every assistant reads the entire material simultaneously. This allows them to see how their section fits into the bigger picture, giving varying degrees of importance to certain sections based on their relevance to the overall topic.

Occasionally, the assistants pause to huddle and discuss with each other how different sections relate. This exchange helps them better understand the relationships between concepts and ensures that every critical detail is noticed. When it comes time to prepare the final presentation, a second team of assistants steps in. this team is responsible for taking all the synthesized information and crafting it into a final, coherent presentation. Because the first team of assistants took the time to understand both the granular details and the broader context, the second team can rapidly pull together a presentation that is both comprehensive and focused.

In this setup, the first team of assistants functions as the encoder layers, and their discussions represent the self-attention mechanism. The second team of assistants acts as the decoder layers, and the final presentation is the Transformer output. This collaborative approach allows for quicker yet thorough preparation, making the team versatile enough to tackle a variety of conference topics, whether they are scientific, business-oriented, or anything in between.

From Sequential to Contextual Processing

Earlier AI models, like recurrent neural networks, processed information sequentially. Imagine reading a book word by word and forgetting the last word as soon as you move on to the next one. But life doesn't work that way. Our understanding often depends on linking different parts of a sentence or text together. The attention mechanism enables the model to do just that, creating a richer and more dynamic understanding of the input data.

Enter the Transformer

The 2017, Google researchers published "Attention Is All You Need." This paper by introduced a new neural network architecture called "Transformer," which leverages attention as its sole computational mechanism. Gone are the days of depending on recurrence or convolution methods. The Transformer showed that pure attention was sufficient, even superior, for achieving groundbreaking results. 

The architecture of the Transformer is relatively simple. It has two main parts: an encoder that interprets the input and a decoder that produces the output. These parts are not just single layers but stacks of identical layers, each having two crucial sub-layers. One is the multi-head self-attention mechanism, which allows for interaction between different positions in the input data. The other is a feedforward neural network, which further fine-tunes the processed information. Why has the Transformer model gained so much traction? Here's why:

  • Speed: Unlike older models that process data sequentially, the Transformer can handle all parts of the data simultaneously, making it incredibly fast.
  • Learning Depth: The self-attention mechanism builds connections between words or data points, regardless of how far apart they are from each other in the sequence.
  • Transparency: Attention mechanisms make it easier to see which parts of the input the model focuses on, thereby providing some interpretability.
  • Record-breaking Performance: The Transformer outclasses all previous models on multiple tasks, particularly machine translation.
  • Efficiency: It achieves top-tier results much faster, requiring less computational power.

Transformers have revolutionized natural language processing (NLP) in recent years. Initially published in 2017, the transformer architecture represented a significant breakthrough in deep learning for text data. 

Unlike previous models like recurrent neural networks (RNNs), transformers can process entire text sequences in parallel rather than sequentially. This allows them to train much faster, enabling the creation of vastly larger NLP models. Three key innovations make transformers work well: positional encodings, attention, and self-attention. Positional encodings allow the model to understand word order. Attention lets the model focus on relevant words when translating a sentence. And self-attention helps the model build up an internal representation of language by looking at the surrounding context.

Models like BERT and GPT-3 have shown the immense power of scaling up transformers with massive datasets. BERT creates versatile NLP models for tasks like search and classification. GPT-3, trained on 45TB of internet text, can generate remarkably human-like text. 

The transformer architecture has become the undisputed leader in NLP. Ready-to-use models are available through TensorFlow Hub and Hugging Face. With their ability to capture the subtleties of language, transformers will continue to push the boundaries of what's possible in natural language processing. Not only has the Transformer excelled in language translation tasks like English-to-German and English-to-French, but it has also shown remarkable versatility. With minimal modifications, it has performed exceptionally in tasks like parsing the structure of English sentences, far surpassing the capabilities of older models. All this is in just a fraction of the time and computational resources that earlier state-of-the-art models needed.

While its impact is most noticeable in natural language processing, attention mechanisms are finding applications in numerous other areas:

  • Computer Vision: From detecting objects in images to generating descriptive captions.
  • Multimodal Learning: Models can now effectively combine text and image data. 
  • Reinforcement Learning: It helps AI agents focus on crucial elements in their environment to make better decisions.
The Transformer model is a step and a leap forward in AI technology. Its design simplicity, powerful performance, and efficiency make it an architecture that will likely influence many future AI models. As the saying goes, "Attention is all you need," and the Transformer model has proven this true. In short, if attention were a currency, the Transformer would be a billionaire, and the future of AI would indeed be attention-rich.

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